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Cách viết footnote và liệt kê bibliography

CÁCH VIẾT FOOTNOTE VÀ LIỆT KÊ BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. BOOKS

When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author or editor;
2. Title;
3. Compiler, translator or editor (if an editor is listed in addition to an author);
4. Edition;
5. Name of series, including volume or number used;
6. Place of publication, publisher and date of publication;
7. Page numbers of citation (for footnote or endnote).

1. Books with One Author or Corporate Author

Text:

Author:
Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the “lithotint” process in 1840.1

Editor:
Human beings are the sources of “all international politics”; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same.1

Corporate Author:
Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem.1

First footnote:

1Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

1Valerie M. Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997), 5.

1UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, edited by Alexander Zouev (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), 44.

Note the different treatment of an editor’s name depending on whether the editor takes the place of an author (second example) or is listed in addition to the author (third example).

Subsequent footnotes:

Include the author or editor’s last name, the title (or an abbreviated title) and the page number cited.

2Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850, 50.

2Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy, 10.

2UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy, 48.

Bibliography:

Hudson, Valerie, N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997.

Twyman, Michael. Lithography 1800-1850. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

UNICEF. Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the
Former Soviet Union. Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

2. Books with Two or More Authors or Editors

First footnote:

1Russell Keat and John Urry, Social Theory as Science, 2d ed. (London: Routledge
and K. Paul, 1982), 196.

1Toyoma Hitomi, “The Era of Dandy Beauties,” in Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan’s Sexual Minorities, eds. Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 157.

For references with more than three authors, cite the first named author followed by “et al.” Cite all the authors in the bibliography.

1Leonard B. Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style, ed. Berel Lang (Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), 56.

Subsequent footnotes:

2Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science, 200.

2Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style, 90.

Bibliography:

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science, 2d. ed. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982.

Hitomi, Toyoma. “The Era of Dandy Beauties.” In Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan’s Sexual Minorities, edited by Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker, 153-165. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler,

Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden White. The Concept of Style. Edited by Berel Lang. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.

3. Electronic Books

Follow the guidelines for print books, above, but include the collection (if there is one), URL and the date you accessed the material.

First footnote:

1John Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy (Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834), in The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2009).

Subsequent footnotes:

2Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy.

Bibliography:

Rae, John. Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. In The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2009).

II. PERIODICAL ARTICLES

For periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper, etc.) articles, include some or all of the following elements in your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author;
2. Article title;
3. Periodical title;
4. Volume or Issue number (or both);
5. Publication date;
6. Page numbers.

For online periodicals , add:
7. URL and date of access; or
8. Database name, URL and date of access. (If available, include database publisher and city of publication.)

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever version you used.

1. Journal Articles (Print)

First footnote:

1Lawrence Freedman, “The Changing Roles of Military Conflict,” Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 52.

Here you are citing page 52. In the bibliography (see below) you would include the full page range: 39-56.

If a journal has continuous pagination within a volume, you do not need to include the issue number:

1John T. Kirby, “Aristotle on Metaphor,” American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 520.

Subsequent footnotes:

2Freedman, “The Changing Roles of Military Conflict,” 49.

2Kirby, “Aristotle on Metaphor,” 545.

Bibliography:

Freedman, Lawrence. “The Changing Roles of Miltary Conflict.” Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 39-56.

Kirby, John T. “Aristotle on Metaphor.” American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 517-554.

2. Journal Articles (Online)

Cite as above, but include the URL and the date of access of the article.

First footnote:

On the Free Web

1Molly Shea, “Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds,” Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009),http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds (accessed June 25, 2009).

Through a Subscription Database

1John T. Kirby, “Aristotle on Metaphor,” American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524,http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html (accessed June 25, 2009).

1Michael Moon, et al., “Queers in (Single-Family) Space,” Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 32,http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189 (accessed June 25, 2009).

Subsequent Footnotes:

2Shea, “Hacking Nostalgia.”

2Kirby, “Aristotle on Metaphor,” 527.

2Moon, “Queers in (Single-Family) Space,” 34.

Bibliography:

Shea, Molly. “Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds,” Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009),http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds (accessed June 25, 2009).

Kirby, John T. “Aristotle on Metaphor,” American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524,http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html (accessed June 25, 2009).

Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir. “Queers in (Single-Family) Space.” Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 30-7, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189 (accessed June 25, 2009).

3. Magazine Articles (Print)

First footnote:

Monthly or Bimonthly

1Paul Goldberger, “Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile,” Architectural Digest, October 1996, 82.

Weekly

1Steven Levy and Brad Stone, “Silicon Valley Reboots,” Newsweek, March 25, 2002, 45.

Subsequent footnotes:

2Goldberger, “Machines for Living,” 82.

2Levy and Stone, “Silicon Valley Reboots,” 46.

Bibliography:

Goldberger, Paul. “Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile.” ArchitecturalDigest, October 1996.

Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. “Silicon Valley Reboots.” Newsweek, March 25, 2002.

4. Magazine Articles (Online)

Follow the guidelines for print magazine articles, adding the URL and date accessed.

First footnote:

1Bill Wyman, “Tony Soprano’s Female Trouble,” Salon.com, May 19, 2001,http://archive.salon.com/ent/tv/feature/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/index.html (accessed June 27, 2009).

1Sasha Frere-Jones, “Hip-Hop President.” New Yorker, November 24, 2008,http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Bibliography:

Wyman, Bill. “Tony Soprano’s Female Trouble.” Salon.com, May 19, 2001,http://archive.salon.com/ent/tv/feature/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/index.html (accessed June 27, 2009).

Frere-Jones, Sasha. “Hip-Hop President.” New Yorker, November 24, 2008.http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

5. Newspaper Articles

In most cases, you will cite newspaper articles only in notes, not in your bibliography. Follow the general pattern for citing magazine articles, although you may omit page numbers.

In Print

1Eric Pianin, “Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End,” Washington Post, February 13, 2002, final edition.

Online

1Eric Pianin, “Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End,” Washington Post, February 13, 2002, final edition, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed June 27, 2009).

Note: In the example above, there was no stable URL for the article in LexisNexis, so the name of the database was given rather than a URL.

6. Review Articles

Follow the pattern below for review articles in any kind of periodical.

First footnote:

1Alanna Nash, “Hit ‘Em With a Lizard,” review of Basket Case, by Carl Hiassen, New York
Times, February 3, 2002, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=105338185&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5604&R… (accessed June 26, 2009).

1David Denby, “Killing Joke,” review of No Country for Old Men, directed by Ethan and Joel Coen, New Yorker, February 25, 2008, 72-73, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=30033248&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Second footnote:

2Nash, “Hit ‘Em With a Lizard.”

2Denby, “Killing Joke.”

III. WEBSITES

In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: “According to its website, the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires …”.

If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:

1. Author or editor of the website (if known)
2. Title of the website
3. URL
4. Date of access

Example:

Financial Accounting Standards Board. http://www.fasb.org (accessed April 29, 2009).

(Tham khảo trên trang Web: Georgetown University Library. http://www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/turabian-footnote-guide?quicktabs_3=1 ngày 28.05.2012)

Q: What’s the difference between a periodical, a journal, and a magazine? What difference does it make which one I use?

A: A “periodical” is any publication that comes out regularly or occasionally (i.e. periodically, get it?). TV Guide, Sports Illustrated, The Journal of Anthropological Research, The World Almanac, and the phone book are all periodicals.

A “magazine” is a periodical with a popular focus, i.e. aimed at the general public, and containing news, personal narratives, and opinion. Articles are often written by professional writers with or without expertise in the subject; they contain “secondary” discussion of events, usually with little documentation (e.g. footnotes). Magazines use vocabulary understandable to most people, and often have lots of eye-catching illustrations. Time, Newsweek, U.S. News & World Report, and Psychology Today are magazines

A “journal” is a scholarly periodical aimed at specialists and researchers. Articles are generally written by experts in the subject, using more technical language. They contain original research, conclusions based on data, footnotes or endnotes, and often an abstract or bibliography. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, The Chaucer Review, The Milbank Quarterly, and Labor History are examples of journals.

It’s important to understand the differences between journals and magazines. Magazines are not necessarily bad or low quality (nor are journals necessarily high quality) — they simply aren’t designed to support most upper-level academic research. This is because they don’t document their sources of information, and they generally lack the depth of scholarly journals.

(Tham khảo trên trang Web: University of Michigan-Flint. http://www.umflint.edu/library/faq/difference.htm ngày 27.05.2012)

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